EXAMPLES OF AN EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER
The following example is provided to give students a real life example of a research paper. Review this example in its entirety and begin writing your own today.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, "[By 1993] death certificates listed diabetes as the fifth leading cause of death for Blacks aged 45 to 64, and the third leading cause of death for those aged 65 and older in 1990” (Bailey, 2007, p. 1). These statistics show how serious the problem of diabetes has become in the black community. Epidemiological studies can focus the efforts of the healthcare community to effective interventions aimed at lowering the prevalence and incidence of diabetes among African Americans.
Epidemiology Paper Roles
This paper will explore the role of epidemiology in the surveillance of the incidence of diabetes in the morbidity and mortality of Americans of African descent. This paper will also discuss the definition and purpose of epidemiology, epidemiological methods, the epidemiological triangle and levels of prevention that is related with diabetes in the African American community.
Definition and purpose of epidemiology in epidemiology paper
The definition of epidemiology is very important if one is to use the definition to describe its purpose. “A common definition of epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations” (Savitz, Poole, & Miller, 1999, p. 1159). A better description of epidemiology is the analysis of the incidence and spread of disease within populations, with the aim of establishing causality. The purpose of epidemiology is to find the causes of diseases that affect a population. The discipline of epidemiology influences the practices of both clinical medicine and public health. Epidemiology can be used as a major determinant of evidence based practice because the outcome of monitoring is frequently utilized to guide a change in the way these disciplines practice and perform in their field. Epidemiological research studies may also have an impact on the kinds of services provided by community agencies if those agencies survey the types of services that would benefit the community (Savitz, Poole, & Miller, 1999).Another purpose of epidemiology is to predict the occurrence of diseases in the future including where and under what circumstances diseases may occur and who will be affected (Lukes, 2007). This type of foresight assists those serving that population to provide educational resources in order to avoid the negative impact of disease on that population. A sufficiently large group must be studied to provide reliable results in such an undertaking. Once this is achieved, the resulting information is a valuable tool in the prevention of morbidity and mortality in populations at risk for certain diseases or injuries.
Epidemiological methods in epidemiology paper
There are several methods that are used by modern epidemiologists. One such method is the morbidity survey. The morbidity survey is a gathering of morbidity data of both the sick and the well. One of the limits of this type of data gathering is that only general data can be gathered (California Diabetes Program, 2005).
More Methods in epidemiology paper
In San Bernardino County, California, one way data is collected is by use of a retrospective cohort study. Data is gathered from the participants then results are divided according to groups. Participants self report the data gathered so instances of diabetes in California may be higher than those reported. The incidence of a disease is compared to the prevalence. The incidence is the number of new cases of a particular disease over a period of time. The prevalence is the total number of new cases... [continues]
NUR/408 Epidemiology: Global and Public Health
Health is a state of optimum well-being, a human right and a social goal. The public health mission is to provide and assure conditions that promote health in the community. Public health, epidemiology and nursing practice share the same goal of disease prevention and control. By definition, epidemiology is the study of population in order to (1) monitor the health of the population, (2) understand the determinants of health and disease in the community and (3) investigate and evaluate intervention to prevent disease and maintain health. (Stanhope, Lancaster. 2008, p.244-245).Nurses rely on epidemiology data and methods to design, implement and evaluate community programs (Stanhope, Lancaster. 2008, p. 245). To pace the spread of disease, epidemiologists have developed scientific methods and set parameters for their study. Influenza (the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by a virus. It causes mild to severe illness, and can be deadly. Older people, young children, and those with certain health conditions are at high risk for serious flu complications. This paper describes epidemiology as a science and analyzes the incidence of influenza pandemic among elderly from an epidemiologic point of view.
Epidemiology can be described as a science that uses quantitative, scientific, and research methods to study the risk, causes and factors of health related state or event in a specific population with the end result to inform and guide public health actions. The scope of epidemiology includes infectious diseases such as influenza and chronic disease. It includes their morbidity like diabetes, mental health, health event like injury, occupational and environmental health. Its also takes in account health behaviors (diet, physical activities), social condition (poverty, housing) research and health services. Epidemiology can be descriptive and analytic. Descriptive epidemiology is the study of the distribution of health-related states or events. It refers to the occurrence of disease (how many), in term of person (who), place (where), and time (when) (Stanhope, Lancaster. 2008, p. 244). It rules out chance, bias, confounding as explanations of observed differences, and draws conclusions as causal hypotheses. It also includes public health surveillance, (school of public health) Analytic epidemiology studies the determinants of health related states or events.( factors, exposures, characteristics, behaviors, contexts ). It measures and tests the causes and associations (how and why), from descriptive studies hypotheses, controls for chance, bias, confounding in the study design, analyzing data and drawing conclusions.( School of public health).The case of influenza pandemic on elderly population is an example of how the principles of epidemiology are applied in vulnerable populations. The methods used to quantify the existence or occurrence of the disease during an outbreak are: frequency, distribution, and causes. Frequency has two components. The incidence is a measure of new cases of disease that develop in a population during a specific time. It also measures the probability that unaffected persons will develop the disease. Prevalence is the... [continues]
Homeless Veterans with Hepatitis
March 28, 2011
University of Phoenix
Introduction to Epidemiology Paper
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recognized as an emerging pathogen in the United States. The epidemiological study of viral hepatitis C in the homeless is relevant because of the huge burden of the disease on the public health care system over time. The CDC reports that “HCV is the most common blood-born infection in the population, with estimated prevalence rates of chronic infection at 1.8% of the general population. It is further estimated that 65% of the patients with chronic infections will develop active liver disease over 20-30 years, with 10-20% developing into cirrhosis and an additional 1-5% developing hepatocellular carcinoma” (Desai, 2002, p.396). Hepatitis C virus is transmitted primarily through percutaneous exposure however transmission can also occur though unapparent percutaneous or mucosal exposures such as in high risk sexual practices (CDC, website). There is no laboratory distinction between acute and chronic infection and no vaccination against hepatitis C. HCV is the “tenth leading cause of death in the U.S. as well as chronic liver disease. Because chronic carriers can live decades with none or few symptoms public health efforts are aimed at stopping transmission of HCV with “screening of potential carries to determine infection rates. The homeless have not been included in epidemiology studies of HCV due to their transient lifestyle making tracking and identification of carriers difficult. However data indicates that injection drug use accounts for the majority of cases of HCV among the homeless as compared to the general population.
According to Desai, Rosenheck, and Agnello’s study on the prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection in a sample study of homeless veterans treated in a 40 bed residential Domiciliary Care unit for Homeless Veterans (DCHV) program in Massachusetts with an average of 120 annual admissions (Desai, Rosenheck & Agnello, p. 397). The risk factors for contracting hepatitis HCV correlates with substance abuse and service in Vietnam. The program was conducted over a 5 year period of systematic testing for HCV infection then blood test were merged with standardized data collection forms to assess socio-demographic characteristics, military history, and medical and psychiatric history. Comparisons of the tested sample... [continues]
University of Phoenix
Instructor: Sandi Wheeler
Epidemiology today is considered to be the core science of public health and is described as a constellation of disciplines with a common mission: optimal health for the whole community (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology has reformed public health and continues to strive for disease prevention and health promotion in communities across the world. The population and disease that will be discussed in relation to epidemiology in this paper with be of HIV in the homeless population. This paper will explore the role of epidemiology in the surveillance in the incidence of HIV morbidity and mortality of the homeless population. This paper will also discuss the definition and purpose of epidemiology, epidemiological methods, the epidemiological triangle, and levels of prevention that is related with HIV in the homeless population.
Epidemiology Paper Continued...
First let us begin with epidemiology and its importance to public health in relation to disease prevention and health promotion. According to Stanhope & Lancaster (2008), epidemiology has been defined as the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified population and the application of this study to control health problems. Epidemiology is not just “the study of” health in a population; it also involves applying the knowledge gained by the studies to community-based practice (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, n.d.). Epidemiology and its findings in relation to prevalence of diseases among certain populations is a vital ingredient to public health and the overall health of communities.
The purpose of epidemiology is to find the cause of diseases that affect certain populations. The findings allow public health officials, leaders, and nurses to assess and evaluate current conditions, identify vulnerable populations, plan for change, implement evidence-based actions, and evaluate those outcomes for better overall health of those populations. “Epidemiological methods are now used to study health-related behaviors, such as diet and physical activity; to investigate associations between... [continues]
Josephine Thomas Beach
August 15, 2011
Epidemiology is defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008, p. 243). Epidemiology takes an interdisciplinary approach at protecting the health of the entire community and is concerned with the risk of disease, the rate of disease development, and the levels of existing disease in a population (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008).
According to Medscape’s (2011) website, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are prevalent among homeless girls and women (both sheltered and unsheltered) and is attributed to lack of access to condoms, survival sex, prostitution, intravenous drug use, language barriers, and citizenship status. Healthy people reports an estimated 1.1 million people are living with HIV/AIDS. 1 in 5 infected persons are unaware resulting in 56,000 new infections annually (HealthyPeople.gov, 2011). Up to sixteen percent of all persons living with HIV/AIDS are homeless (The National AIDS Housing Coalition, 2011).
According to the Chatham-Savannah Authority for the Homeless (2011),
“According to the Stewart B. McKinney Act, a person is considered homeless
who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate night-time residence and has a primary night- time residency that is (A) a supervised publicly or privately or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations…(B) an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or (C) a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings” (para 1). Contributing factors to homelessness include lack of affordable housing, budget cuts in social programs, substance abuse, mental health, changes in the labor market, divorce, and runaways. In the veteran population, homelessness is usually related to battle fatigue or post traumatic stress syndrome (Amore & Aspinall, 2011).
Epidemiology Paper continued...
When investigating and outbreak, both speed and accuracy are important and an determine if reported outbreaks are truly outbreaks. Local health department records, hospital discharge records, mortality records along with records from neighboring states, national data, telephone surveys, and local community surveys are all used to determine baselines and trends. Multifactorial elements may contribute to false-positive elevations include better reporting factors, increased population sizes. Additionally, all outbreaks are not... [continues]
December 20, 2010
Epidemiology of Rubella
Vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women are susceptible to contracting viral illnesses. Rubella, one viral illness, is a relatively mild disease in children and adults but has devastating consequences on the developing fetus. In this paper, the author will define epidemiology and describe the Epidemiological Triangle as it relates to rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Types of epidemiology will also be discussed and various levels of prevention of Rubella and CRS will be examined.
Epidemiology can be defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems” (University of Illinois at Chicago, n.d., p. 2). Epidemiology is important in the study of health and disease in communities because it studies the health related behaviors and the association the behaviors have with social conditions. The study of epidemiology yields health-related information such as who is affected, where they are, and when the events occur. This information can be used to determine the frequency and distribution of diseases throughout the world. Epidemiology is used to “monitor the health of various populations, understand the determinants of health and disease in communities, and investigate and evaluate interventions to prevent disease and maintain health” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008, p. 245).
“The first step in the epidemiological process is to answer the ‘what’ question by defining a health outcome” (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008, p. 244). For example, contraction of the rubella virus during the first trimester of pregnancy leads to deafness and significant developmental delays in the newborns of affected mothers. The next step is to use epidemiological methods to describe the distribution of the disease and define who is at risk for contracting the disease. The incidence rate, which is the development of new cases in an at-risk population, is then determined to help predict the personal risk of people contracting the disease. This step is followed by identification of the prevalence proportion, which is the amount of current disease in the population at a... [continues]
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