Comparison Paper - NUR 408


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Example 1

Comparison Paper

The purpose of this paper is to describe the history of public health, including pertinent dates and significant events and the different aspects of public and community-based health. Public Health is on a national, state, and county scale dealing in research, data analysis, and recommendation for health promotion. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and census are examples of public health. Community health uses the research done by public health and implements it based on the population’s needs, political direction, or private funding (Koot, n.d.). Examples of community-based health care are the local health department giving the H1N1 flu vaccination to all citizens free of charge. These community-based healthcare systems are giving the vaccinations based on research by the CDC and NIH.

History of the U.S. Department of Health for Comparison Paper

The national U.S. Department of Health and Human Services began with hospitals and care for seamen and marines in 1798. The Quarantine Act of 1887 moved power to quarantine people with infectious disease away from the stale level to the national level. The marine hospital system for sailors was renamed the Public Health Service on 1906. Children’s Service created in 1912 and changed to an advocate of children’s interests, child labor laws, for example. Bureau of Indian health service of 1921 created health services for Native Americans on reservations. In 1930, the National Hygienic Laboratory later became the National Institute of Health (NIH). The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, became the Food, and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1946, the Communicable Disease Center was created and then converted into the Center for Disease Control (CDC, n.d.). The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was designed under President Eisenhower, and was brought into existence on April 11, 1953. HEW became the Department of Health and Human Services, officially being named on May 4, 1980 (, n.d.).

Research information about county, state, and national public health resources for Comparison Paper

Today, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services works to protect the health of the nation and provide essential services to the needy. The agencies of the Department of Health and Human Services carry out an extensive array of services, including research, public health, food, and drug safety, grants, and other funding, health insurance, and other services (, n.d.).

The agencies conduct research, educate, and inspect to protect and promote health in the nation’s people. These agencies can also make recommendations based on Healthy People 2010 (Foundation, 2002).

Each of the states and territories has a single recognized official state public health agency that is managed by a state health commissioner (State of FL, 2009). Florida has a surgeon general in this capacity. Ana M. Viamonte Ros, M.D., M.P.H. is Florida's first State Surgeon General and is the first Cuban American woman to lead... [continues]

Example 2

Comparison Paper

In this paper we will examine public health resources provided by county, state and on national level. Also, we will look at a brief history of public health resources and important events that led to its changes. The difference between public and community health will also be explained.

The National Public Health Performance Standard Program (NPHPSP) sets the framework by which public care is provided on a state and county level by providing information on how to assess the health status of community. Also, this organization teaches how to diagnose health issues of the community, give information to encourage the public to advocate for its self, how to enable partnership within the community, make sure that healthcare is being practiced within legal parameters to protect the community from harm, ensure that local community resources or within the reach and knowledge of the populous of the community. NPHPSP also ensures that measures are taken to guarantee staffing and workforce that is competent and qualified to provide care, thus this represents how public health is provided with national resources (CDC.go., n.d.). County level public health concentrates for example on making sure that its residents are aware where clinics for low income families are available, where they can get necessary immunization for no or little prize, give information on local food establishments, information on common health topics and concerns. State level public health is concerned more on organizational level in providing and protecting the health of its public for example; Children’s defense fund advocacy, which promotes health of the younger population, and Center for Medicaid and Medicare that provides care for older population, resources for the poor and disabled (Stateline, n.d.).

The predecessor of public health services was established in 1798 where care for merchant seamen was created. In 1878 Quarantine Act was passed where individuals with infectious illness could move away from general public. In 1902 the establishment that cared for sailors also started to service general public and in 1912 it was renamed Public Health Services. In 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act was passed which... [continues]

Example 3

Public Health Comparison Paper

Public health has a varied and fascinating history. From the early colonial days onward people worked together to fight the battles against disease. The weapons in this battled ranged from primitive cures in early history to the advanced technology of today. Throughout history public and community health have intertwined for one common goal, the health of individuals in communities. Working at the federal, state, and local levels our governing authorities carry out the public health activities necessary to keep people healthy and safe.

While local and state governments carried most of the responsibilities in the early days for public health the federal government’s role was growing. From the beginning of the Marine Hospital Service in 1798 to its expansion into the United States Public Health Service in 1918 the government role began to expand. The federal government greatly increased its health care activities throughout the 1920s and 1930s by creating programs that increased access to personal health services. In 1922 the passage of what was known as the Sheppard-Towner Act established the first grant-in-aid program for supporting the delivery of public health services. This act created the Federal Board of Maternal and Infant Hygiene and gave it the authority to administer funding to states for maternal and child health services The program became a widely replicated model for other federal health programs. These programs allowed the federal government to provide funding and oversight to state agencies. The state agency would create and implement the programs. More programs were created including the development of local public health clinics and the training of public health workers in1935, the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases in 1938 and in 1946 the creation of... [continues]

Example 4

Comparison Paper

History of Public Health Comparison Paper

Throughout the history of man the act of caring for individuals within a communal environment can be traced back to the Stone Age. Over those times however there was no definition for this act of preservation within a community. According to Answers (2011), “Public health was defined by the American public health leader, Charles-Edward A. Winslow, in 1920 as, "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of community infections, the education of the individual in principles of personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing service for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and the development of the social machinery which will ensure to every individual in the community a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health" (para. 1).

During the 13th and 14th century the spread of disease had become a serious problem. Diseases such as the bubonic plague, leprosy, smallpox, tuberculosis, syphilis, scabies, and anthrax were spreading across Europe at alarming rates. The bubonic plague or “Black Death” managed to spread throughout Europe within three years. It was at this time public officials started isolating patients and sanitary controls within communities were established to combat the spread of communicable diseases. The 16th and 17th century brought about a time in public health were scientists made breakthroughs in recognizing diseases and microorganisms. Though these periods brought about community involvement, awareness, and local policies no national policies were ever developed.

It was not until the 19th century that national developments were made to keep up with the large number of growing cities in Europe. These trends in Europe would help to establish changes in the United States. The American Red Cross was founded in 1881 by Clara Barton. Clara had seen a need in preparing, providing, and responding to the needs of those in times of disaster within communities. The American Red Cross would further stand to provide assistance for the... [continues]

Example 5

Comparison Paper

Nur 408

February 13th, 2012

Comparison Paper


This comparison paper will include information about community and public health in local county, state, and national health departments. This paper will also include the differences, common goals, and interests to assist communities around the country.

In order to discuss the aspects of public and community health across the country it is important to first define both terms. Public Health is the art of safeguarding and improving the health of communities through learning, promotion of a healthier way of life, and the study of illness and the prevention of injury. Public health workers examine the influence that genetics has on health, personal selection, and environment to build programs that protect the health of families within communities. Overall, public health is involved in the protection and the well-being of citizens around the country. These populations can be as little as a local region, or as large as a whole nation. Public health workers attempt to inhibit crises from taking place or happening again through applying an educational plan, creating guidelines, overseeing services, adjusting health plans, and performing research; in comparison to clinical workers like physicians and nurses whose attention is primarily on treating individuals when they become ill or hurt. This is also a topic that is aimed at bridging health care gaps and the fight for equality in health care, excellence, and accessibility (Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2008).

In comparison, community health is a discipline that blends the aspects of chief health care and practice with public health. The community health worker manages practices that are preventative, healing, and therapeutic. This way of thinking is founded on the belief that concentration should be focused on the individual, family, and group to impact the health of a community. Community health encompasses the contribution of all consumers of health care and aids in the growth of... [continues]

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