NUR 405 History of Community
Nursing Matrix

NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix Examples for the NUR 405 Course at the University of Phoenix

Example 3

NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

Colonial period in America: The colonists recognized public health problems quite early in North America. They established temporary boards of health were established in response to epidemic diseases.

In the early years of America’s settlement, the female head of the household took care of all household members, in their sickness and childbirth as well as wellness. She was also responsible for growing or gathering healing herbs for use throughout the year. Smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, typhoid, and typhus were major health issues during this time. Tuberculosis and malaria are communicable diseases that stayed endemic during this period.

American ideas of social welfare and the care of the sick were strongly influenced by the traditions of British settlers in the New World. Colonial Americans followed the English model of the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601and established systems of care for the poor, sick, mentally ill, and aged. Early colonial public health efforts included improved sanitation, collection of vital statistics, and control of any communicable diseases introduced through seaports (Lancaster & Stanhope, 2008).

A nurse is able to identify other person’s condition of being (Watson, 1985). The theory relates to this period because it was essential for the female head of the household to recognize an illness. In a way, these women were diagnosing and treating their sick family members.

Past period 2

19th century in America: The United States expanded and as the number o cities increased the poor crowded in substandard housing with unsanitary conditions. Some larger cities like New York established city health departments. Public health nurses were the primary staff members of...[continues]

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Example 4

NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

University of Phoenix Material

History of Community Nursing Matrix

Historical time period Past period 1

Colonial period America 1600 - 1700

Nursing role in community

Female head of household took care of everyone with any sickness they may have. They were also responsible for collection herbs used to help the healing process.

Major health issues

Smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, typhoid, and typhus were major health issues during this time period.

Partnerships used

Early colonial public health efforts included the collection of vital statistics, improved sanitation, and control of any communicable diseases introduced through seaports (Lancaster & Stanhope, 2008).

Watson’s theory

A nurse is able to detect the other person’s condition of being (Watson, 1985). The theory relates to this time period since it was essential for the female head of the household to recognize an illness. In a way, these women were diagnosing and treating their sick family members. The caring model or theory can also be considered a philosophical and moral/ethical foundation.

Past period 2

Industrial Revolution America 1850-1900

Hospitals were needed and obviously nurses were required. Schools were started to train nurses to help treat sick people.

Urbanization caused poor sanitation in the big cities of America. Many communicable diseases affected.

Nursing interventions, improved sanitation, economic improvements, and better nutrition were credited with reducing the... [continues]

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Example 5

NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

Historical time period / Nursing role in community / Major health issues / Partnerships used / Watson’s theory

1841+ World War II and post-World War II A large number of medical professionals joined armed services to assist in the war. Because of this, there was a decrease in the amount of acute care professionals available for the population for this time period. Much of the care responsibility was handed to a more community based level and was provided by families and others. Nursing shortages remained post-World War II and dramatically effected the roles of medical professionals. The Red Cross attempted to assist by providing education to the population in the form of home nursing courses and certified nursing assistants. Much of the care provided was done in the community and home settings. Because of this, the scope of practice for public health nursing professionals grew. As a result from war, health institutes were faced with ever increasing social, emotional, and psychological patient population. Many infectious diseases were also prevalent (such as tuberculosis). Partnerships included the Red Cross and federal public health agencies. Both agencies had to adapt to the ever changing patient population, as well as deal with the shortage of available medical professionals. Watson’s theory of caring was brought to the patient’s community. People in the community who realize the need for medical professionals took up the role by educating themselves to provide the much needed care. These individuals provided many of the carative factors Watson speaks of, such as faith-hope and assisting others with gratification of human needs.

Historical time period Nursing role in community Major health issues Partnerships used Watson’s theory

Early 1960’s During this period there is a large social shift. During the civil rights movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s many racial inequalities were brought to the surface of society. One of these inequalities was that of health care services and modes of delivery. Finally taking notice of the inequality, new programs were enacted to help address them. During this period Social Security was enacted to increase... [continues]

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Example 6

NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

Past Period 1 for NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

Early American settlement period: 18th Century-early 19th Century (Stanhope and Lancaster, p. 24-25).

Initially, the responsibility of caring for the poor and sick belonged to household members but then became the responsibility of the local township or county government. The latter tradition was brought over from England and was based on the Elizabethan Poor Law, which stated the poor and sick were guaranteed medical care for the locals of each area. The Federal government’s involvement was limited to protecting seamen near the seacoast cities to prevent epidemics from spreading. Care for the ill was very basic and occurred at home, most often given by the female head of the family. Duties ranged from assisting with childbirth to growing and gathering the supplies (herbs) used for treatments. The role of “nurses” during this time focused on providing emotional support and comfort. Treatment was limited to herbal remedies.

In the early 1800’s, care provided by charitable groups, most often churches, began in localized areas. Women from churches went into people’s homes to provide care, just as visiting nurses do today.

The major health issues of this period included: poor sanitation, untrained caregivers, lack of knowledge for disease prevention, and epidemics. Preventable communicable diseases of that time included: yellow fever, smallpox, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis, and malaria.

Few hospitals existed and the ones that did were unsanitary and had poorly trained staff. While there was a lack of a main governing organization for health care, settlers relied on their local government for assistance. After the American Revolution, boards of health were established and public health committees monitored environmental issues, such as water quality and sewage construction. Local church organizations provided care to the sick. This time period was prior to nurses becoming... [continues]

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Example 7

NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

Past period 1 for NUR 405 History of Community Nursing Matrix

Colonial Period 1600-1800

Female takes the primary responsibility of domestic chores including nursing the children and the sick

Yellow fever, smallpox, public health and urban living conditions including sanitation, and stopping the spread of communicable diseases(Stanhope and Lancaster, 2008).

American Medical Association formed hygiene committee to conduct surveys on sanitation and form a method to collect vital statistics (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2008).

Women, having motherhood as a main role, are viewed as the caring and empathetic individuals and therefore, nursing is expected from women of the household.

Past period 2

World War 1

Public health nursing grew more quickly through Red Cross (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2008). Nurses volunteer to aid for the wounded and sick civilians and military personnel. Nurses also travelled outside the United States to aid our military personnel.

Wound related infection, tetanus, influenzia,

By 1912 the government redefined role of Public Health Service by giving them authority to investigate the causes and spread of diseases (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2008). Public Health Nursing program for military outposts was established in WWI, which led to... [continues]

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